The ideal culprit was identified: He contradicted himself, however, by saying that he read only one document, "which was enough". The Government, in the face of the military hardening stance, still had two ways to influence events: Reflecting the intense interest in social history that gripped historians since the s and s, Eric Cahm wrote The Dreyfus Affair in French Society and Politics , an excellent analysis of the sociology of the Affair. Winock, The Century of intellectuals , p.
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New refi program gives homeowners one more chance. How to Maximize Your Savings. On 5 January , Dreyfus was summarily convicted in a secret court martial, publicly stripped of his army rank, and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island in French Guiana. I remain worthy of serving in the Army. Long live the Army! In August , the new chief of French military intelligence, Lieutenant Colonel Georges Picquart , reported to his superiors that he had found evidence to the effect that the real traitor was a Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy.
Picquart was silenced by being transferred to the southern desert of Tunisia in November When reports of an army cover-up and Dreyfus's possible innocence were leaked to the press, a heated debate ensued about anti-Semitism and France's identity as a Catholic nation or a republic founded on equal rights for all citizens.
Esterhazy was found not guilty by a secret court martial, before fleeing to England. Had Dreyfus refused the pardon, he would have been returned to Devil's Island, a fate he could no longer emotionally cope with; so officially Dreyfus remained a traitor to France, and pointedly remarked upon his release:.
The government of the Republic has given me back my freedom. It is nothing for me without my honor. For two years, until July , he lived in a state of house-arrest with one of his sisters at Carpentras , and later at Cologny.
On 12 July , Dreyfus was officially exonerated by a military commission. The day after his exoneration, he was readmitted into the army with a promotion to the rank of major Chef d'Escadron. A week later, he was made Knight of the Legion of Honour ,  and subsequently assigned to command an artillery unit at Vincennes. On 15 October , he was placed in command of another artillery unit at Saint-Denis. In his son Pierre published his father's memoirs based on his correspondences between and Dreyfus had started corresponding with the marquise Marie Arconati Visconti in and began attending her Thursday political salons after his release.
They continued correspondence until her death in Dreyfus's prison sentence on Devil's Island had taken its toll on his health. He was granted retirement from the army in October at the age of As a reserve officer, he re-entered the army as a major of artillery at the outbreak of World War I. Serving throughout the war, Dreyfus rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. By then in his mids, Dreyfus served mostly behind the lines of the Western Front , in part as commander of an artillery supply column.
However, he also performed front-line duties in , notably at Verdun and on the Chemin des Dames. Dreyfus's son Pierre also served throughout the entire war as an artillery officer, receiving the Croix de guerre. Dreyfus died in Paris aged 75, on 12 July , exactly 29 years after his exoneration. The inscription on his tombstone is in Hebrew and French.
It reads translated to English:. The museum created an online platform in dedicated to the Dreyfus Affair. Longing for another special night like that, Herman remarks that they should have stayed in touch with Captain Dreyfus, clearly a reference to the exiled captain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.