The difference between an index fund's performance and the index is called tracking error.
Ethical indices have a particular interest in mechanical criteria, seeking to avoid accusations of ideological bias in selection, and have pioneered techniques for inclusion and exclusion of stocks based on complex criteria.
Another means of mechanical selection is mark-to-future methods that exploit scenarios produced by multiple analysts weighted according to probability, to determine which stocks have become too risky to hold in the index of concern. Critics of such initiatives argue that many firms satisfy mechanical "ethical criteria", e. Indeed, the seeming "seal of approval" of an ethical index may put investors more at ease, enabling scams.
One response to these criticisms is that trust in the corporate management, index criteria, fund or index manager, and securities regulator, can never be replaced by mechanical means, so " market transparency " and " disclosure " are the only long-term-effective paths to fair markets. From a financial perspective, it is not obvious whether ethical indices or ethical funds will out-perform their more conventional counterparts. Theory might suggest that returns would be lower since the investible universe is artificially reduced and with it portfolio efficiency.
On the other hand, companies with good social performances might be better run, have more committed workers and customers, and be less likely to suffer reputational damage from incidents oil spillages, industrial tribunals, etc. Sharpe Indexing Achievement Awards are presented annually in order to recognize the most important contributions to the indexing industry over the preceding year.
Media related to Stock market indexes at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Journal of Portfolio Management. Archived from the original on September 22, Islamic Finance , Bloomberg L. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. UK evidence from disaggregate measures". Sharpe Indexing Achievement Awards". Retrieved December 1, Primary market Secondary market Third market Fourth market.
Common stock Golden share Preferred stock Restricted stock Tracking stock. Authorised capital Issued shares Shares outstanding Treasury stock. Electronic communication network List of stock exchanges Trading hours Multilateral trading facility Over-the-counter.
Alpha Arbitrage pricing theory Beta Bid—ask spread Book value Capital asset pricing model Capital market line Dividend discount model Dividend yield Earnings per share Earnings yield Net asset value Security characteristic line Security market line T-model. Algorithmic trading Buy and hold Contrarian investing Day trading Dollar cost averaging Efficient-market hypothesis Fundamental analysis Growth stock Market timing Modern portfolio theory Momentum investing Mosaic theory Pairs trade Post-modern portfolio theory Random walk hypothesis Sector rotation Style investing Swing trading Technical analysis Trend following Value averaging Value investing.
Retrieved from " https: It was the site of a fortified Celtic settlement, or oppidum. Other finds indicate activity up to Late Antiquity. During the sixth and fifth centuries BC, the Vix or Mont Lassois settlement appears to have controlled a major trading node, where the Seine , an important riverine transport route linking eastern and western France, crossed the land route leading from the Mediterranean to northern Europe.
Additionally, Vix is at the centre of an agriculturally rich plain. Discovery of archaeological material in the area, originally by a locally based amateur, began in April Increasingly systematic work throughout the following decades revealed thousands of pottery sherds, fibulae , jewellery, and other bronze and iron finds.
In new archaeological research on and around Mont Lassois began under the direction of Bruno Chaume. Excavation of the settlement on the summit of Mont Lassois revealed extensive fortifications, with ditches and walls up to 8 m thick.
The walls were built in the Pfostenschlitzmauer technique, but also yielded nails of the type common in murus gallicus walls. Excavation inside the enclosure revealed a variety of buildings, including post houses, pit dwellings , hearths, and storage units built on stilts. Geophysical work shows a large planned settlement, with a central, north—south axis and several phases of buildings.
In , a remarkable architectural unit was discovered at the centre of the site. It is a large complex of two or three buildings, the main one measuring 35 by 21 m, with an estimated height of 12 m: The large hall had an apse at the back and a front porch in antis.
Overall, the central unit resembles the megaron complex of early Greek architecture. Such a find is unprecedented in early Celtic Europe. Finds suggested domestic use or feasting uses. The many individual finds from the Lassois oppidum clearly demonstrate the settlement's long and wide-ranging trade contacts, as well as its own role as an economic centre.
The most common finds are shards of pottery, with more than 40, recorded to date. Many are local products, decorated with simple geometric motifs checkerboard patterns and occasional depictions of animals. There also have been finds of imported Attic black figure vases from Greece. Many amphorae and bowls could be identified as coming from the contemporary Greek-settled areas of southern France.
The amphorae had been used for transporting wine. Jewellery included fibulae , commonly decorated with amber or coral , earrings, beads, slate bracelets, and rings.
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