Neurofibromatosis type II

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Bei einer Platte ist der niedrigste Energiezustand ein willkürlicher Zustand, wo die Kornpolaritäten in alle Richtungen zeigen oder in anti-pa rallelen Richtungen , wobei der Durchschnitt Null ist. In one plate the lowest energy state is an arbitrary state where the grain polarities in all directions show or in rallelen anti-pa directions , wherein the average is zero.

With the lapse of time the thermi specific energy causes the grain polarity is arbitrary, as the recording density is suffi accordingly high eg greater than the predetermined density , so that the grains which are magnetized in advance to the "left" or " right "to show , no longer to" show left " or" right ".

Eine kleine Anzahl dieser Fehler auch als "geringe" Fehler bezeichnet kann korrigiert werden, wobei ein Fehlerkorrekturcode verwendet wird, der bei der Datenspeicherung und Datenrückgewinnung bekannt ist. A small number of these errors also referred to as "low" errors can be corrected with an error correction code is used which is known at the data storage and recovery. Nach Ablauf einer zusätzlichen Zeitdauer jedoch werden die zu korrigierenden Fehler zu zahlreich, wobei der Fehlerkorrekturcode verwendet wird, was einen dauernden Datenverlust zur Folge hat auch als "schwerer" Fehler bezeichnet.

After the expiry of an additional time period, however, the too numerous errors to be corrected, said error correction code is used, resulting in a permanent loss of data also known as "heavy" error. Vor einem solchen per manenten Datenverlust führen die Vorrichtung und das Verfahren automatisch einen Auffri schungsbetrieb durch vorzugsweise, ohne den gesamten Speicherträger abzutasten, wie dies beispielsweise durch Data Lifeguard erforderlich ist.

Against such a per manent loss of data, the apparatus and method automatically carry out a research operation by Auffri preferably without scanning the entire storage medium, as required for example by Data Life Guard. When data is repeated to be refreshed as described herein, they can be maintained for an indefinite period of time without serious error caused by spontaneous degradation due to thermal energy , though they are stored with a density which is greater than the predetermined density.

Therefore, the areal density of data stored on the magnetic carrier can be increased considerably compared to the known density, for example an order of magnitude, while the amplitude of the read signal deteriorates with time.

Die jeweiligen Frequenzen für die graphischen Darstellungen sind , 75 und 50 MHz. The respective frequencies for the graphs are , 75 and 50 MHz. It should be noted that in this example, the grains are magnetized in the plane of the film, that is, they can be used in the form of a disk or tape, which is also known as "longitudinal carrier.

Depending on the embodiment, the above- energy behaves described nis be chosen so that it is less than 50 for example, this may be as many as 40 depending on the measurement method.

Das Energieverhältnis ist eine Funktion der Anzahl von Parametern, beispiels weise der magnetischen Anisotropie, der Filmdicke und der Betriebstemperatur.

The energy ratio is a function of the number of parameters that Example, the magnetic anisotropy, the film thickness and the operating temperature. Insbesondere wird, wenn die Filmdicke reduziert wird, das Volumen jeden Korns ebenfalls reduziert, und die Polarität von magnetischen Signalen, die in den Körnern aufgezeichnet ist, wird auf die Verschlechterung aufgrund der thermischen Energie bei Raumtemperatur anfällig.

In particular, when the film thickness is reduced the volume of each grain is also reduced, and the polarity of magnetic signals recorded in the grains, is susceptible to deterioration due to the thermal energy at room temperature. Mit der Zeit werden die Magnetisierungen eines oder mehrerer Körner, die in einem Magnetbe reich vorhanden sind, zu Fehlstellen, was eine Verschlechterung der Amplitude des Lesesi gnals zur Folge hat, wenn Daten, die vorher in den Körnern gespeichert wurden, gelesen wer den.

Over time, the magnetization of one or more grains, which are rich present in a Magnetbe be to defects, resulting in deterioration of the amplitude of Lesesi gnals a result, if data previously stored in the grains read who the.

One such test procedure can be used to select as a refresh counter value of the amplitude of the read signal, in which a refresh operation is lead durchzu.

Thus, in one embodiment, the distance between adjacent magneti is held overbased locations of the magnetic carrier is small enough to ensure that the Ampli tude of the read signal spontaneously decreases with time. Thus, the distance may, for example, to dress ner than 50 nm are made nen to aufzuzeich with a recording density of kFCI, so that intermediate effects between fields accelerate the deterioration of the amplitude in neighboring magnetization points as shown in Fig.

In one embodiment, a refresh counter is selected to ensure that the data are refreshed when an amplitude Si of the read signal at the time of writing, for example, at the time t1, as shown in Fig.

Nach einem Wiederauffrischungsbetrieb kehrt die Amplitude des Lesesignals zurück zum Ursprungswert Si beispielsweise im Zeit punkt t5 und t6 in Fig. After a refresh operation, the amplitude of the read signal returns to the original value Si for example, in the time point t5 and t6 in FIG.

Bei einem Beispiel wird ein Wiederauffrischungsindikator mit dem Wert von 0,5 Si mit den Daten gespeichert. In one example, a refresh counter with the value of 0. Bei einem anderen Beispiel wird der Wiederauffrischungsindikator auf der Basis einer Zeitdauer t3-t1 be rechnet, während der die Amplitudenverschlechterung ohne einen schwerwiegenden Fehler auftreten kann. In another example, the refresh indicator is calculated on the basis of a time period t3-t1 be while that may occur, the amplitude degradation without a fatal error.

After that, the refresh operation is performed automatically as soon as it is found that the vomit as refresh indicator cherten date older than the current date.

Eine solche Vorrichtung und ein solches Verfahren beseitigen die Notwendigkeit, eine Festplatte insgesamt abzutasten, um das Auftreten eines Fehlers während des Lesens der Daten zu ermitteln.

Such an apparatus and such a method eliminates the need to scan a hard disk as a whole, to detect the occurrence of an error during reading of the data. Anstelle davon wird ein Wiederauffrischungsindikator gleichzeitig mit dem Schreiben der Daten gespeichert. Instead, a refresh indicator is stored simultaneously with the writing of the data.

Thereafter, the apparatus and method of using the refresh counter to determine whether a data refresh as that must be performed.

Der Wiederauffrischungsindikator kann irgend ein Parameter sein, der eine Notwendigkeit signalisiert, die Daten in einem Zeitpunkt vor dem Auftreten eines schwerwiegenden Fehlers wiederaufzufrischen. The refresh indicator can be a parameter any, which signals a need to rejuvenate the data in a time before the occurrence of a fatal error. Bei einer Ausführungsform schreibt ein Computer 8 Fig. In one embodiment, a computer writes 8 Fig.

Is shown simultaneously with, that is, just before, during or immediately after writing of da ta, for example within the same day, the computer 8 stores also optio nal, for example as in the step 14 in Fig. Danach liest, wenn notwendig, der Computer 8 die geschriebenen Daten, wie beispielsweise durch den Schritt 15 in Fig.

Thereafter, the computer 8 reads, if necessary, the written data, as shown for example by the step 15 in Fig. The computer 8 is also programmed by software so as to automati cally performs a refresh operation, as shown by steps Insbesondere wartet der Computer 8 , wie durch den Schritt 16 in Fig. In particular, the computer waits 8, as shown by step 16 in Fig. In the case of the predetermined event, the computer 8 checks, as shown by the step 17 determines whether a previously stored Indi cator 13 I, which is also referred to as "refresh indicator" see Fig.

Wenn nicht, kehrt der Computer 8 zum Schritt 16 oben beschrieben zurück. If not, the computer returns to step 16 8 described above returns. If this is so and also in the case of a periodic event , the computer where the wiederaufzufrischenden Since th leads 8 by a "re-refresh" operation of the same file as indicated by the step 18 shown and this as indicated by is shown the step 19 is written back in this embodiment, at al ternatives embodiment, the data is written ge in a new file on the hard disk 12 which follows the deletion of the original file.

Danach aktualisiert der Computer 8 , wie durch den Schritt 20 gezeigt ist, den Wiederauffrischungsindikator für die Daten, die im Schritt 19 geschrieben wurden. Thereafter, the computer updates 8, as shown by step 20, the refresh indicator of the data that has been written in to step Danach kehrt der Computer 8 zum Schritt 16 zurück, um auf ein weiteres Wiederauffrischungsprüfereignis zu warten.

Computer 8 thereafter returns to step 16 to wait for another Wiederauffrischungsprüfereignis. Der Computer 8 kehrt unmittelbar vom Schritt 19 zum Schritt 16 im Fall eines periodischen Ereignisses zurück. The computer 8 immediately returns from step 19 to step 16 in the case of a periodic event back. In this manner, the refresh operation step 18 and 19 are repeated as often as desired in order to keep the data without loss for an indefinite period, thereby allowing the use of a storage medium in a manner which causes the read signal amplitude over a time to lose.

Such use it laubt it, that the surface density of the stored data can be significantly increased, for example by an order of magnitude compared to surface densities in the prior art. It should be noted that in the above described with reference to Fig. It also noted that this. Schritte entwe der durch einen Prozessor in Firmware , der in der Speichereinheit angeordnet ist, durchge führt werden können, oder durch einen Mikroprozessor 23 in Software , der als Zentralverar beitungseinheit des Computers 8 arbeitet.

Entwe steps by a processor in firmware , which is arranged in the storage unit, Runaway leads may be, or in software by a microprocessor 23 which operates as Zentralverar beitungseinheit the computer. In one example, the computer 8 reads out data simultaneously with the writing of the data, and measures an amplitude or other characteristic of the read signal in the write time.

Der Computer 8 speichert ein vorherbestimmtes Bruchteil, beispielsweise die Hälfte des gemessenen Wertes als Wiederauffrischungsindikator, beispielsweise im Feld 31 J Fig. The computer 8 stores a predetermined fraction, for example half of the measured value as a refresh indicator, for example in the field 31 J Fig.

Thereafter checked in step 17 Fig. No vember , auf die hier insgesamt bezuggenommen wird. It should be noted that other fields of the address book Adresse features hold, for example, the file name is 31 A and the file size in the box 31P in the field as described in US Patent No.

No vember , will total respect referred to herein. Wie oben kurz beschrieben fügt in einem anderen Beispiel gleichzeitig mit dem Datenschreiben der Computer 8 eine fehlerfreie Zeitdauer oder ein Bruchteil davon zum laufenden Datum hinzu, um ein zukünftiges Datum zu berechnen auch als "Wiederauffri schungsdatum" bezeichnet , wann die Daten wieder aufgefrischt werden müssen, und spei chert das Wiederauffrischungsdatum wie durch den Schritt 14 in Fig.

Briefly described above adds in another example, simultaneously with the data writing the computer eight error-free period or fraction thereof to the current date to to calculate a future date also referred to as "Wiederauffri research datum" when the data again need to be refreshed, and refresh the SpeI chert date as indicated by step 14 in FIG. In diesem Beispiel bestimmt der Computer 8 siehe Schritt 17 in Fig. In this example, the computer 8 determines see step 17 in Fig.

Bei einer Ausführungsform wird die Zeitdauer zwischen zwei Wiederauffri schungsoperationen auf die Verlustrate der Amplitude des Lesesignals bezogen dh, die wie derum von der Flächendichte der aufgezeichneten Daten abhängt. In one embodiment, the time period between two Wiederauffri is research operations on the loss rate of the amplitude of the read signal based ie, as derum depends on the areal density of recorded data.

Bei dieser Ausführungs form nimmt das Zugriffsverhalten der Wiederauffrischungsoperation weniger Zeit in An spruch als die Zeitdauer, für welche der Speicherträger nicht für Normaloperationen verwen det wird Operationen, die keine Wiederauffrischungsoperation sind. In this execution form the access behavior of the refresh operation takes less time to demanding than the time period for which the storage medium not application for normal operations is det operations that are no refresh operation.

It should be notes that if the refresh operation takes longer than the time that is available between normal operations, either a be pushed to the normal operations or performed with a low priority, or b the Wiederauffri is research operation is not completed which may non-recoverable error has resulted. Non-recoverable errors can be avoided if the areal density is so limited that it is less than a predetermined size for example, kFCI from which it has been found that it is sufficient for the Wiederauffrischungsbe drive can be completed while also normal operations are carried out during the predetermined time duration.

Bei einer oben beschriebenen Ausführungsform wird ein einziger Wiederauffri schungsindikator für alle Daten, die in einer einzigen Datei gespeichert sind, gespeichert.

In an embodiment described above is a single Wiederauffri research indicator for all data that are stored in a single file, stored. Bei anderen Ausführungsformen kann jedoch anstelle des Speicherns eines Wiederauffri schungsindikators für jede Datei ein Wiederauffrischungsindikator für jede Spur gespeichert sein.

In other embodiments, however, a refresh indicator of each track can be stored instead of storing a Wiederauffri research indicator for each file. It should be noted that data which is normally maintained by the operating system for each file can be used instead of a refresh data is a "last-modifi ed" to determine the need for a refresh operation.

In one embodiment, the memory unit 11 comprises FIG. Der Verstärker 42 ver stärkt das Signal vom Kopf 43 um das zehnfache oder das hundertfache in Abhängigkeit von der Ausführung. The amplifier 42 ver strengthens the signal from the head 43 in order ten times or one hundred times, depending on the embodiment. The read channel 44 may be by any known circuit, such as a peak detector, a circuit which uses the Partial Response Maximum Likelihood Method, also referred to as "PRML" circuit, or a circuit that uses the Decision Feedback Equalization method, also known as called "DFE circuit", are executed.

Das Ausgangssignal des Detektors 65 wird über einen Ausgangsbus zu einer Lese-Schreib-Schaltung 41 geliefert, die einen Pufferspeicher 41 M aufweist, der mit einer Schnittstellensteuerung 41 C gekoppelt ist.

The output signal of the detector 65 is supplied via an output bus to a read-write circuit 41 which comprises a buffer memory 41 M, which is coupled to an interface controller 41 C.

The interface controller 41 C stores before turning into the output signal of the detector 65 in the buffer memory 41 M. Daher liefert die Steuerung 41 C das umgesetzte Signal auf einem Systembus 47 des Personalcom puters nicht gezeigt. Therefore, the controller 41 supplies the converted signal C on a system bus 47 of the Personalcom puter not shown.

It should be noted that each of the details 41 to 44 is a known detail and operates in a conventional manner. Moreover, in addition to microcontroller 50, the storage unit 11 has a Digitalsi gnalprozessor 51 DSP , which compares the amplitude of the read signal refining indicator with a predetermined on held in non-volatile memory 52 when the drive is assembled, or as an indicator 49 on the plate It should be noted that the refresh indicator can be stored in the manufacturing factory when the factory running is assembled, or alternatively in the time when data is first written to a sector 48th.

Der DSP 51 zeigt der Mikrosteuerung 50 die Notwendigkeit an, einen Wiederauf frischungsbetrieb durchzuführen durch Umschreiben der Daten auf der Platte 12 , wenn der vorherbestimmte Zustand erfüllt ist wie hier beschrieben. The DSP 51 shows the micro-controller 50, the need for performing a re-refining plant by rewriting the data on the disc 12 when the predetermined condition is satisfied as described herein.

It should be noted that the gain detector 45 is compared to a peak detector different, which only finds out the location of a temporal peak value and the non-recording the amplitude. Anstelle davon kann der Amplitudendetektor 45 eine herkömmliche Schaltung sein, die die Maximalampli tude ermittelt und aufzeichnet, wenn das Signal fällt, beispielsweise ein Norton-Detektor, wie auf Seite von Kapitel 11 hier als Referenz eingeführt des Buches beschrieben, mit dem Titel "McGraw-Hill Circuit Encyclopedia and Troubleshooting Guide", Band 2, von John D.

Lenk, veröffentlicht durch McGraw Hill, Inc. Instead, the amplitude detector 45 may be a conventional circuit which detects the Maximalampli tude and records when the signal falls, for example, a Norton detector, as described on page of chapter 11 herein incorporated by reference of the book described, entitled "McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia Circuit and Troubleshooting Guide," Volume 2, by John D.

Lenk, published by McGraw Hill, Inc. Amplitude detectors can also be formed by a diode and a capacitor or by a feedback loop, said amplifier be used in addition to the diode-capacitor combination, such as on the page incorporated herein of the book and entitled "The Art of Electronics "second edition, by Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill, published in by Cambridge University Press.

It should be noted that any Amplitu for example, a device which RMS finds the medium directory square amplitude or a device that finds a percentage of Spitzenwertam plitude can be used in other embodiments, instead of the amplitude detector 45 dendetektor. Bei einer Aus führungsform werden die Komponenten, die in der folgenden Tabelle aufgelistet sind, ver wendet, um die in Fig. In one form from guide the components that are listed in the following table, ver turns to form the circuit arrangement shown in Fig.

All parts in the table above are from Silicon Systems, Inc. It should be noted that the interface control 41 C has a terminal that communicates with the microcontroller 50 in conjunction to allow that the microcontroller 50 signals the interface controller 41C exchanges for example, to cause that the controller 41 C, the which is obtained by error correction of a feedback signal signal, writes to the sector 48th.

Bei einer weiteren Ausführungsform ist die Speichereinheit 70 Fig. In another embodiment, the memory unit 70 Fig. Der Umsetzer 71 kann durch einen belie bigen DSP gebildet sein, um das Analogsignal vom Zeitbereich in den Frequenzbereich um zusetzen.

The converter 71 may be formed by a belie-lived DSP to reset the analog signal from the time domain to the frequency domain. Danach beseitigt das Filter 72 alle Signale mit Ausnahme des Signals mit einer vor herbestimmten Frequenz.

Thereafter, the filter 72 removes all signals except the signal with a prior tart voted frequency. The filter 72 may be formed as a bandpass filter which passes only a specific frequency component for example at MHz of the read signal to the DSP 51st Die vorherbestimmte Frequenz, die durch das Filter 72 verwendet wird, kann programmierbar sein und beispielsweise durch die Mikrosteuerung 50 geliefert werden. It should be noted that the DSP 51 uses an amplitude detector according to this embodiment, in order to determine the amplitude of the high frequency component.

In addition, the DSP 51 is similar ver also a predetermined refresh indicator with the amplitude of the component of the feedback signal at the predetermined frequency instead of the amplitude of the entire feedback signal. This embodiment has the advantage that is obtained by more rapid decrease in amplitude of a high frequency component of a larger resolution, compared with the decrease in the amplitude of the read signal as a whole over all frequencies.

An advantage of embodiments on the basis of the amplitude shown in Fig. Auf der anderen Seite kann eine Ausführung auf der Basis der Verwendung einer auffrischungsdatums- und lesefreien Zeitdauer beispielsweise in Fig. On the other hand, an embodiment based on the use of a auffrischungsdatums- and reading idle time duration for example, shown in Fig. Bei einer solchen Ausführung lädt ein Benutzer, der einen Computer 8 besitzt, lediglich beispielsweise über ein Netzwerk, welches mit dem Internet verbunden ist eine Benutzer-Software für die Schritte, die in Fig.