Agram , and Ljubljana German: These dialects are considered as. Die jährliche Pilgerfahrt zu Makkah - die Hadsch - ist eine Verpflichtung nur für die, die körperlich und finanziell fähig sind sie durchzuführen. Mostly descending from German settlers who immigrated during this time, 25—30, people still speak German as a native tongue today. Diaspora-gerechte Betreuungsformen habe sie hier gelernt, die sie nun auch in ihre Arbeit als Hochschulseelsorgerin einbringen möchte.
Für Kalligraphie oder besondere Hervorhebungen im Schriftsatz wird aber immer noch die klassische Schreibrichtung verwendet. Dies führte dazu, dass sich in Japan zwei Silbenalphabete Kana herausbildeten, Katakana für Fremdwörter ursprünglich in buddhistischen Texten und Hiragana für japanische Partikeln und grammatikalische Endungen. Seit gibt es ministerielle Richtlinien, so dass heute Kanji in der Schule gelehrt und in Veröffentlichungen benutzt werden.
Kanji werden für Verben, Adjektive und Substantive verwendet. Was das Lesen von japanischen Texten mit Kanji so enorm schwierig macht, sind die verschiedenen Lesungen für das gleiche Schriftzeichen. Die koreanische Schrift ist eine Buchstabenschrift der besonderen Art. Sie ahmt die quadratische Form der chinesischen Schriftzeichen nach, gibt aber sämtliche Laute der koreanischen Sprache wieder.
Zur Erinnerung an diese Erfindung wurde der 9. Weiterhin ist es durch ein erklärendes Werk verbreitet worden. Das Alphabet hatte ursprünglich über 28 Buchstaben. Nachdem später einige von ihnen nicht mehr verwendet wurden, besteht es heute aus 14 Konsonanten und 10 Vokalen.
Das Hunmin Jeongeum wurde zum Nationalgut Nr. Ausgehend von den altindischen Schriften Brahmi und Gupta bildeten sich in der gesamten Region Silbenschriften heraus. Soll ein anderer Vokal folgen, wird dies durch diakritische Zeichen über, unter oder neben der Silbe angezeigt. Die Form der Zeichen ändert sich mit dem verwendeten Schreibmaterial: Lassen die Birkenrinden in Nordindien gerade Linien zu, würden diese die in Südindien verwendeten Palmblätter spalten. Die Eckpunkte dieser Entwicklung sind die Devanagari-Schrift, bei der alle Silben an einer Linie wie an einer Wäscheleine aufgehängt sind, und die birmanische Schrift, die im Wesentlichen aus Kreisen besteht.
Im Bereich des Fruchtbaren Halbmondes sind ab ca. Die Schrift entwickelte sich dort ca. Erheblich jünger sind die verschiedenen ägyptischen Schriften Hieroglyphen , Hieratisch , Demotisch , die hebräische Schrift Konsonantenschrift und die arabische Schrift Konsonantenschrift.
Abgeleitet von einer älteren Stufe der arabischen Schrift ist die äthiopische Schrift Silbenschrift. Auch wenn die ägyptische Hieroglyphenschrift auf den ersten Blick wie eine Bilderschrift aussieht, war sie doch nicht weit davon entfernt, eine Buchstaben- oder zumindest Konsonantenschrift zu werden.
Konsonantenschriften sind auch die hebräische und die arabische Schrift. Wer in diesen Schriften liest, muss sich die Vokale selbst hinzudenken. Die Punktuationen, die in beiden Sprachen verwendet werden, finden nur bei Kinderbüchern und religiösen Schriften Verwendung.
Im Mesopotamien des 4. Im sumerischen Uruk werden die ersten Tontafeln mit Keilschrift hergestellt. Diese ersten schriftlichen Aufzeichnungen stellen keine Mythen oder Versdichtungen dar, sondern sind in erster Linie landwirtschaftliche Listen und Tabellen , die als Gedächtnisstütze für die Buchführung und als Informationen über die soziale Verwaltung des Reiches verstanden werden können.
Durch die Aufzeichnungen wird deutlich, dass die Sumerer sowohl Eigentumsurkunden einführten, wie auch Rechensystem und Zahlungsmittel und darüber hinaus mit Zinsen und Darlehen umgehen konnten.
Assyrisch , Babylonisch , Hethitisch , Ugarit , Rawlinson. Die frühesten Hieroglyphenfunde stammen aus dem Zeitraum um v. Die Hieroglyphenschrift besteht, wie die Piktogramme der Keilschrift aus der gleichen Zeit, aus stilisierten Zeichnungen.
Sie unterscheidet sich aber von ihr insofern, als die einzelnen Zeichen die Lautung der gesprochenen Sprache wiedergeben. Dadurch können mit ihrer Hilfe sowohl konkrete als auch abstrakte Realitäten dargestellt werden. The Germanic languages are traditionally subdivided into three branches: The first of these branches survives in modern Danish , Swedish , Norwegian , Faroese , and Icelandic , all of which are descended from Old Norse.
The East Germanic languages are now extinct, and the only historical member of this branch from which written texts survive is Gothic. The West Germanic languages, however, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English , German, Dutch , Yiddish , Afrikaans , and others.
Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines running through Düsseldorf - Benrath and Krefeld - Uerdingen , respectively serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift south of Benrath from those that were not north of Uerdingen.
The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects nos. This classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones also known as the Elbe group , Ingvaeones or North Sea Germanic group , and Istvaeones or Weser-Rhine group. Standard German is based on Thuringian - Upper Saxon dialects no. German is therefore most closely related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish based on Central Franconian dialects — no.
Also closely related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries , such as Swiss German Alemannic dialects — no. After these High German dialects, standard German is somewhat less closely related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects e.
As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic; the differences between these languages and standard German are therefore considerable. These Anglo-Frisian dialects are all members of the Ingvaeonic family of West Germanic languages which did not take part in the High German consonant shift. This sound shift involved a drastic change in the pronunciation of both voiced and voiceless stop consonants b , d , g , and p , t , k , respectively.
The primary effects of the shift were the following:. While there is written evidence of the Old High German language in several Elder Futhark inscriptions from as early as the 6th century AD such as the Pforzen buckle , the Old High German period is generally seen as beginning with the Abrogans written c. Following the Abrogans the first coherent works written in OHG appear in the 9th century, chief among them being the Muspilli , the Merseburg Charms , and the Hildebrandslied , as well as a number of other religious texts the Georgslied , the Ludwigslied , the Evangelienbuch , and translated hymns and prayers.
Of particular interest to scholars, however, has been the Hildebrandslied , a secular epic poem telling the tale of an estranged father and son unknowingly meeting each other in battle.
Linguistically this text is highly interesting due to the mixed use of Old Saxon and Old High German dialects in its composition. The written works of this period stem mainly from the Alamanni , Bavarian , and Thuringian groups, all belonging to the Elbe Germanic group Irminones , which had settled in what is now southern-central Germany and Austria between the 2nd and 6th centuries during the great migration. In general, the surviving texts of OHG show a wide range of dialectal diversity with very little written uniformity.
The early written tradition of OHG survived mostly through monasteries and scriptoria as local translations of Latin originals; as a result, the surviving texts are written in highly disparate regional dialects and exhibit significant Latin influence, particularly in vocabulary. The German language through the OHG period was still predominantly a spoken language, with a wide range of dialects and a much more extensive oral tradition than a written one.
Having just emerged from the High German consonant shift, OHG was also a relatively new and volatile language still undergoing a number of phonetic , phonological , morphological , and syntactic changes. The scarcity of written work, instability of the language, and widespread illiteracy of the time thus account for the lack of standardization up to the end of the OHG period in While there is no complete agreement over the dates of the Middle High German MHG period, it is generally seen as lasting from to Whereas during the Old High German period the Germanic tribes extended only as far east as the Elbe and Saale rivers, the MHG period saw a number of these tribes expanding beyond this eastern boundary into Slavic territory this is known as the Ostsiedlung.
Along with the increasing wealth and geographic extent of the Germanic groups came greater use of German in the courts of nobles as the standard language of official proceedings and literature. While these efforts were still regionally bound, German began to be used in place of Latin for certain official purposes, leading to a greater need for regularity in written conventions. While the major changes of the MHG period were socio-cultural, German was still undergoing significant linguistic changes in syntax, phonetics, and morphology as well e.
A great wealth of texts survives from the MHG period. Significantly, among this repertoire are a number of impressive secular works, such as the Nibelungenlied , an epic poem telling the story of the dragon -slayer Siegfried c. Also noteworthy is the Sachsenspiegel , the first book of laws written in Middle Low German c. The abundance and especially the secular character of the literature of the MHG period demonstrate the beginnings of a standardized written form of German, as well as the desire of poets and authors to be understood by individuals on supra-dialectal terms.
The Middle High German period is generally seen as ending with the decimation of the population of Europe in the Black Death of — While these states were still under the control of the Holy Roman Empire and far from any form of unification, the desire for a cohesive written language that would be understandable across the many German-speaking principalities and kingdoms was stronger than ever. As a spoken language German remained highly fractured through this period with a vast number of often mutually-incomprehensible regional dialects being spoken throughout the German states; the invention of the printing press c.
One of the central events in the development of ENHG was the publication of Luther's translation of the Bible into German the New Testament in and the Old Testament , published in parts and completed in Copies of Luther's Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region that translated words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Concerning his translation method Luther says the following:. One who would talk German does not ask the Latin how he shall do it; he must ask the mother in the home, the children on the streets, the common man in the market-place and note carefully how they talk, then translate accordingly.
They will then understand what is said to them because it is German. When Christ says 'ex abundantia cordis os loquitur,' I would translate, if I followed the papists, aus dem Überflusz des Herzens redet der Mund. But tell me is this talking German? What German understands such stuff? No, the mother in the home and the plain man would say, Wesz das Herz voll ist, des gehet der Mund über. With Luther's rendering of the Bible in the vernacular German asserted itself against the dominance of Latin as a legitimate language for courtly, literary, and now ecclesiastical subject-matter.
Further, his Bible was ubiquitous in the German states with nearly every household possessing a copy. German was the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empire , which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe. Until the midth century, it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire.
Its use indicated that the speaker was a merchant or someone from an urban area, regardless of nationality. Some cities, such as Prague German: Prag and Budapest Buda , German: Ofen , were gradually Germanized in the years after their incorporation into the Habsburg domain.
Others, such as Pozsony German: Pressburg , now Bratislava , were originally settled during the Habsburg period, and were primarily German at that time. Prague, Budapest and Bratislava as well as cities like Zagreb German: Agram , and Ljubljana German: Laibach , contained significant German minorities.
In the eastern provinces of Banat and Transylvania German: The most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary of the German language is found within the Deutsches Wörterbuch. This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between and In , the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a complete standardization of the German language in its written form and the Duden Handbook was declared its standard definition.
In Northern Germany, Standard German was a foreign language to most inhabitants, whose native dialects were subsets of Low German. It was usually encountered only in writing or formal speech; in fact, most of Standard German was a written language, not identical to any spoken dialect, throughout the German-speaking area until well into the 19th century.
Official revisions of some of the rules from were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries. Approximate distribution of native German speakers assuming a rounded total of 95 million worldwide.
Due to the German diaspora as well as German being the second most widely spoken language in Europe and the third most widely taught foreign language in the US  and the EU in upper secondary education  amongst others, the geographical distribution of German speakers or "Germanophones" spans all inhabited continents.
As for the number of speakers of any language worldwide, an assessment is always compromised by the lack of sufficient, reliable data. In Europe, German is the second most widely spoken mother tongue after Russian and the second biggest language in terms of overall speakers after English. The area in central Europe where the majority of the population speaks German as a first language and has German as a co- official language is called the " German Sprachraum ".
It comprises an estimated 88 million native speakers and 10 million who speak German as a second language e. Although expulsions and forced assimilation after the two World Wars greatly diminished them, minority communities of mostly bilingual German native speakers exist in areas both adjacent to and detached from the Sprachraum.
In France , the High German varieties of Alsatian and Moselle Franconian are identified as " regional languages ", but the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of has not yet been ratified by the government. Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from to Mostly descending from German settlers who immigrated during this time, 25—30, people still speak German as a native tongue today.
Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. German, along with English and Afrikaans was a co-official language of Namibia from until its independence from South Africa in At this point, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language, claiming that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.
Hoffmann , radio the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in German , and music e. The Allgemeine Zeitung is one of the three biggest newspapers in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa. Mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, an estimated 12, people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa. The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.
In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English. In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region. With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German has developed and is spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.
Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.
It continued to be used as a first language into the twentieth century but now its use is limited to a few older speakers. German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia. Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century. German-speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore.
At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language. There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i. The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars.
Like French and Spanish , German has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language. Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region but as a written language. However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by new vernaculars based on standard German; that is the case in large stretches of Northern Germany but also in major cities in other parts of the country.
It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech. Standard German differs regionally between German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.
This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.
German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties according to circumstances. In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.
They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany. Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, whereas Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system. A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either.
Because their linguistic distance to it is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, Hessian can. German is a member of the West Germanic language of the Germanic family of languages , which in turn is part of the Indo-European language family. The German dialects are the traditional local varieties; many of them are hardly understandable to someone who knows only standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology and syntax.
If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue. However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.
Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published. The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties.
The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature. Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany. The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.
Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable Standard German influx [ clarification needed ] and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch. Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.
However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II. The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund. The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German. Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and in Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language. These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.
The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features, and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet. Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects. Haftung für Inhalte dieser Webseite. Wir entwickeln die Inhalte dieser Webseite ständig weiter und bemühen uns korrekte und aktuelle Informationen bereitzustellen.
Leider können wir keine Haftung für die Korrektheit aller Inhalte auf dieser Webseite übernehmen, speziell für jene die seitens Dritter bereitgestellt wurden. Sollten Ihnen problematische oder rechtswidrige Inhalte auffallen, bitte wir Sie uns umgehend zu kontaktieren, Sie finden die Kontaktdaten im Impressum. Haftung für Links auf dieser Webseite.
Unsere Webseite enthält Links zu anderen Webseiten für deren Inhalt wir nicht verantwortlich sind. Wenn Ihnen rechtswidrige Links auf unserer Website auffallen, bitte wir Sie uns zu kontaktieren, Sie finden die Kontaktdaten im Impressum. Falls notwendig, werden wir die unerlaubte Nutzung von Teilen der Inhalte unserer Seite rechtlich verfolgen. Die Bilder, Fotos und Grafiken auf dieser Webseite sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Wir haben diese Datenschutzerklärung Fassung Leider liegt es in der Natur der Sache, dass diese Erklärungen sehr technisch klingen, wir haben uns bei der Erstellung jedoch bemüht die wichtigsten Dinge so einfach und klar wie möglich zu beschreiben.
Ein Cookie ist ein kurzes Datenpaket, welches zwischen Webbrowser und Webserver ausgetauscht wird, für diese aber völlig bedeutungslos ist und erst für die Webanwendung, z.
Es gibt zwei Arten von Cookies: Erstanbieter-Cookies werden von unserer Website erstellt, Drittanbieter-Cookies werden von anderen Websites z. Man unterscheidet drei Kategorien von Cookies: