Archived from the original on 4 August Naturalists catered to polite society's desire for erudition — many texts had an explicit instructive purpose. Vas amou terrorisme lexpress t?
This status has been recently reinforced by the increase in availability of online publications published in Zürich. The headquarters of Switzerland's national licence fee-funded German language television network " SF " are located in the Leutschenbach neighborhood, to the north of the Oerlikon railway station. There are three large daily newspapers published in Zürich that are known across Switzerland.
All three of those newspapers publish Sunday editions. Besides the three main daily newspapers, there are free daily commuter newspapers which are widely distributed: A number of magazines from major publishers are based in Zürich. Zürich has a rich cultural tradition. In addition to high-quality museums and galleries, Zürich has high-calibre chamber and symphony orchestras and several important theatres.
The Zurich Film Festival is one of the most important upcoming international film festivals. In just a few years, the Festival became firmly established upon the national and international festival landscape. Over the course of 11 days, it attracts both stars and new talents and celebrates popular international productions.
One of the largest and most popular annual events in Zürich is the Street Parade , which is also one of the largest techno and dance music festivals in the world. Proceeding along the side of Lake Zürich, it normally occurs on the second Saturday in August. The first edition was held in with about 1, participants.
By the event had reached the size of 1 million participants. It features music, fireworks set to music,  and other attractions throughout the old town. It is the largest public festival in Switzerland and is attended by up to 2 million visitors. The Kunst Zürich is an international contemporary art fair with an annual guest city; it combines most recent and youngest art with the works of well-established artists.
It consists of decorated sculptures distributed over the city centre, in public places. Past themes have included lions , cows , benches , teddy bears , and huge flower pots From this originated the concept of the CowParade that has been featured in other major world cities.
Zürich is also the home to several art movements. The Cabaret Voltaire where the Dada movement was founded in Constructive Art movement took also one of the first steps in Zürich.
The best known traditional holiday in Zürich is the Sechseläuten Sächsilüüte , including a parade of the guilds and the burning of "winter" in effigy at the Sechseläutenplatz. Another is the Knabenschiessen target shooting competition for teenagers originally boys, open to female participants since The Zürich Opera House German: Zürcher Opernhaus is one of the principal opera houses in Europe.
Built in , it was the first permanent theatre in the heart of Zürich and was at the time, the main seat of Richard Wagner 's activities. Later in , the theatre was re-built as an ornate building with a neo-classical architecture.
The portico is made of white and grey stone ornamented with the busts of Wagner, Weber and Mozart. Later, busts of Schiller, Shakespeare and Goethe were also added. The auditorium is designed in the rococo style. The Schauspielhaus Zürich is the main theatre complex of the city.
The Schauspielhaus is one of the most prominent and important theatres in the German-speaking world. The Theater am Neumarkt is one of the oldest theatres of the city. Established by the old guilds in the Old City District, it is located in a baroque palace near Niederdorf Street.
It has two stages staging mostly avantgarde works by European directors. The Zürcher Theater Spektakel is an international theatre festival, ranking among the most important European festivals for contemporary performing arts. The traditional cuisine of Zürich consists of traditional fare, reflecting the centuries of rule by patrician burghers as well as the lasting imprint of Huldrych Zwingli 's puritanism. Traditional dishes include Zürcher Geschnetzeltes and Tirggel.
Zürich offers a great deal of variety when it comes to night-time leisure. It is the host city of the world-famous Street Parade , which takes place in August every year. The most famous districts for Nightlife are the Niederdorf in the old town with bars, restaurants, lounges, hotels, clubs, etc.
There are authentic amusements: In the past ten years new parts of the city have risen into the spotlight. Zürich is home to several international sport federations. Association football is an essential aspect of sports in Zürich. The city is home to two major Swiss football teams ; Grasshopper Club Zürich founded in and FC Zürich founded in , both competing in Switzerland's highest league.
Among the most popular sports in Switzerland is ice hockey. Biking is a popular sport as well as a mean of transport in Zürich. Biking routes are generally marked with red and white signs and the yellow lanes are exclusively meant for the bikers. Also hiking trails are well marked with yellow signs, which give the hiker the probable time it will take him to reach his destination. There are specific maps available for hiking and walking trails throughout Switzerland.
Some of the most accessible walks in the Zürich area are the Uetliberg and the Zürichberg. As many as 30 clubs and 7 indoor curling facilities can be found in the greater Zürich area. The curling season starts in early September and continues until the end of April. Weltklasse Zürich , sometimes referred to as the one-day Olympics,  is a prestigious one-day athletics meet held annually at the Letzigrund Stadium.
Since it started on 12 August , the sporting event has witnessed new world records and national records. To date as many as 24 world records were set in Weltklasse. Zürich Marathon is a popular sport event, inviting numerous athletes from every corner of the globe.
Zürich Marathon is a long distance running event, covering The running course starts in Zürich and passes through Bahnhofstrasse, Bellevueplatz , Mythenquai , Quaibrücke , Talstrasse and Utoquai , and along Lake Zürich to several other places. New Year's Eve run is another important running event.
The race is held on 1 January each year and the start takes place at midnight exactly. The Euro games were held in the Letzigrund Stadium.
Work on the new Letzigrund was completed in exceptionally quick time and the stadium opened in August just one year after the demolition of the old arena. The first time was in and the last time in Zürich also hosted the World Ice Hockey Championships. The city previously co-hosted the and editions. Zürich was also host to the Men's World Floorball Championships. This was the first time the event had been held in Zürich. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Zürich disambiguation.
View over Zürich and the lake Middle: Night view of Zürich from Uetliberg. History of Zürich and Timeline of Zürich. List of mayors of Zürich. List of annual events in Zürich. List of people from Zürich. In this context, the term 'German' is used as an umbrella term for any variety of German. So, according to law, you are allowed to communicate with the authorities by using any kind of German, in written or oral form.
However, the authorities will always use Swiss Standard German aka the Swiss variety of Standard German in documents, or any written form. And orally, it is either Hochdeutsch i. Retrieved 3 July Präsidialdepartement der Stadt Zürich Department of the Mayor. Retrieved 26 September Permanent resident population in urban and rural areas". Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original Press release on 7 March Retrieved 25 September Von der Steinzeit bis zur Früheisenzeit".
Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 22 September Archived from the original on 4 August Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 8 August The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 18 August Schobinger, Zürcher Kantonalbank , p. Retrieved 26 April Die Römer in der Schweiz in German. Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 26 June Gemeinderat der Stadt Zürich.
Retrieved 27 October Retrieved 16 May Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved 30 June Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 14 November Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 3 April Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute.
Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 26 January November " in German. Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 26 March Promoting Cycling for Transport: Research Needs and Challenges. City of Zurich Statistics. Statistikdepartment der Stadt Zürich Department of statistics. Retrieved 9 March Retrieved 25 January Archived from the original Web publication on 15 March Soziale Sicherheit und Gesundheit".
Archived from the original Year book on 20 May Evangelisch-reformierte Landeskirche des Kantons Zürich. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 29 December Evangelisch reformierte Kirchgemeinde Fraumünster. Bald erreichten sie das auch, und das Open Youth Theatre wurde zum Ziel junger Menschen, die der Öffentlichkeit ihr Talent zeigen wollten.
Alternative und experimentelle Theateraufführungen und auch Improvisationstheater werden von Regisseuren, Schauspielern und Musikern gezeigt. Durch den mazedonischen Schriftstellerverband im Jahr gegründet können nationale und internationale Autoren, Poeten und Schreiber am Festival teilnehmen. Austragungszeit ist der frühe Juni, wo in der Stadt die Lindenbäume blühen, nach denen das Kulturevent auch benannt ist. Ein Preis wird einem nationalen und ein anderer einem internationalen Poeten vergeben.
Das Boris Trajkovski Sports Center ist eine multifunktionale Sporthalle und wird für kleinere Sportereignisse benutzt, wie beispielsweise für Hand- und Basketballspiele. Es ist nach dem ehemaligen mazedonischen Präsidenten Boris Trajkovski benannt, der bei einem Flugzeugabsturz ums Leben kam. Es hat eine Kapazität von bis Der Stadtrat von Skopje hat 45 Mitglieder. Für die Legislaturperiode — und — teilten und teilen sich die Räte unter den Parteien wie folgt auf: Die Flagge von Skopje ist ein rotes, vertikales Banner im Verhältnis 1: Im oberen linken Viertel ist in goldgelb das Wappen platziert.
Skopje pflegt seit insgesamt 18 Städtepartnerschaften. Skopje ist die Wirtschaftsmetropole Mazedoniens. Die führenden Unternehmen in allen Wirtschaftsbereichen sitzen in der Hauptstadt. Insgesamt sind 30 Aktiengesellschaften registriert. Sie hat ebenfalls ihren Sitz in der Hauptstadt. Im Jahr waren in der Stadt rund Die Arbeitslosigkeit betrug im gleichen Jahr 14,07 Prozent und lag damit tiefer als der landesweite Durchschnitt, der mit 19 Prozent beziffert wurde.
Ein nicht kleiner Teil arbeitet zudem in der Industrie, die jedoch heute teils veraltet ist, da sie vor allem während der sozialistischen Ära Jugoslawiens ausgebaut wurde. Die vielen Sehenswürdigkeiten, die abwechslungsreichen kulturellen Veranstaltungen, das rege Nachtleben, die Gastronomie und die Rolle als Hauptstadt eines südosteuropäischen Landes ziehen zahlreiche Touristen aus aller Welt an. Doch mit der Touristenhochburg Ohrid kann sich Skopje noch nicht vergleichen.
Radio-Pioniere gründeten am Auch die mazedonische Fernsehgeschichte ist eng mit der Hauptstadt Skopje verknüpft. Rund 20 Jahre nach Radio Skopje wurde am Dezember die erste Fernsehsendung von Television Skopje ausgestrahlt. Mit der nach einsetzenden Demokratisierung wurden auch erste private Rundfunkgesellschaften gegründet.
So wie der Fernsehsender A1 im Jahr , der jedoch seine Arbeit wieder einstellte,  und weitere wie Sitel ,  Kanal 5  und Alsat-M Die ersten Zeitungen Mazedoniens erschienen in der Stadt am Vardar. Die älteste Tageszeitung, die den Sozialdemokraten nahesteht, ist Nova Makedonija. Danach folgte am Skopje ist ein Verkehrsknotenpunkt und bildet den nördlichen Eingang zum Vardartal, das eine Engstelle des wichtigen Verkehrskorridors von Mitteleuropa nach Thessaloniki in Griechenland bildet.
In dem engen Tal verlaufen Bahn und Autobahn parallel. Skopje ist wichtige Kreuzung dieser Paneuropäischen Verkehrskorridore , da sich hier der genannte 8. Korridor mit dem Dieser verbindet von Salzburg Mitteleuropa mit Griechenland bei Thessaloniki. Unterwegs verzweigt sie zudem mit der Autobahn M3. Die gesamte neue Umfahrung kostete der mazedonischen Regierung rund Millionen Euro. Zudem gibt es Planungen einer Eisenbahnstrecke von Sofia nach Tirana , die durch Skopje verlaufen soll.
Der neue, nach dem Erdbeben erbaute Bahnhof Skopje befindet sich im Stadtteil Aerodrom, der östlich des Zentrums liegt. Es handelt sich dabei um eine Wiedereinführung, denn bereits um herum hatte es in Skopje eine Anzahl gebrauchter Londoner Doppeldecker gegeben. Sie ist nach Kyrill und Method benannt und wurde zwischen und gegründet. Eine weitere staatliche Hochschule ist die mit Studenten weitaus kleinere Internationale Balkan-Universität.
Daneben haben viele private Universitäten und Hochschulen ihren Sitz in der Hauptstadt. Die Stadtbibliothek, benannt nach den Gebrüder Miladinovi, besitzt heute etwa Sie nahm ihre Arbeit am Monatliche Durchschnittstemperaturen und -niederschläge für Skopje. Liste von Persönlichkeiten der Stadt Skopje. Zitat eines Einwohners . Museum für zeitgenössische Kunst Skopje. Damaging Effects of July 26, Skopje Earthquake.
Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije. Statistisches Amt Mazedoniens, abgerufen am Einheimische Bevölkerung und römische Städte in der Provinz Obermösien.
Politische Geschichte Provinzen und Randvölker: Juli , archiviert vom Original am 9. Februar ; abgerufen am Der Archivlink wurde automatisch eingesetzt und noch nicht geprüft. Louis Community College, Oktober , abgerufen am 5. Dezember , abgerufen am 5. Najstariji vakufski dokumenti u Jugoslaviji na arapskom Jeziku. In der Moschee befand sich auch eine Bibliothek, was sich aus den gestifteten Büchern nach diesem Dokument [d. In der wakfiye [Stiftungsurkunde] wird auch ein imaret öffentliche Küche erwähnt Geschichte - Funktion - Nationale Symbolkraft.
Skopje zählte um die Mitte des Die Muslime - hauptsächlich Türken - stammten aus Kleinasien; die Islamisierung der einheimischen Bevölkerung war bis zum Um betrieben rund 40 Prozent der muslimischen und 14 Prozent der christlichen Haushalte ein Gewerbe. Der Aufschwung im Balkanhandel im Jahrhundert, begünstigt durch das osmanische Protektorat über Dubrovnik ebenso wie die Ankunft von sephardischen Juden auf dem Balkan, kam auch Skopje zugute.
Mit seinen mehr als Die Rettung der Juden in Albanien. Januar , abgerufen am August PDF-Datei, Üsküb liegt links und rechts des Flusses Vardar [und ist] eine gewaltige Siedlung, die mit vielen tausend bemerkenswerten Steinbauten geziert ist.
Sie hat siebzig Stadtviertel Da sie sich aber im Innern des Landes befindet, hat sie nur wenige Geschütze. Es gibt 9 Koranleseschulen, doch besitzen sie keinen eigenen Lehrraum, sondern sind den Moscheen angeschlossen. An 70 Orten gibt es Schulen mekteb. In der Nähe von jeder Moschee ist eine Schule eingerichtet Es gibt über 20 Derwischklöster tekje.
An sieben Orten gibt es kostenlose Gasthäuser müsafirhane. Übersetzung aus dem Türkischen nach Herbert Duda. Bei heftiger Hitze ähneln die Bazare den Serdab kühlen Sommerräumen in Bagdad, denn die Bazare sind wie die in Sarajevo und Aleppo ganz und gar mit Bogengewölben erbaut Es gibt armenische, bulgarische, serbische und jüdische Gotteshäuser.
Solche für die Franken, Madjaren und Deutschen gibt es nicht. Es gibt jedoch ziemlich viel Lateiner [d.
Katholiken] da; diese halten dann den Gottesdienst auch in den serbischen Kirchen ab Die [muslimischen] Einwohner [Skopjes] sprechen meist rumelisch[-türkisch] und albanisch. Sie haben eine besondere Mundart. Sie gebrauchen dunkle und abgewandelte Ausdrucke. Sie sprechen aber mit einer besonderen Anmut Es gibt sehr viele Notabeln, Vornehme und Angesehene da.
Das sicill aus Skopje. The Albanians - A Modern History. Übersetzt von Xhevdet Shehu. Die Albaner in der Republik Makedonien. Fakten, Analysen, Meinungen zur interethnischen Koexistenz. International Earthquake Symposium Kocaeli. Archiviert vom Original am Juni ; abgerufen am April im Internet Archive auf skopskokale. Februar ; abgerufen am 5. Januar ; abgerufen am 5. März ; abgerufen am 5. Der Standard , 6. Juli , abgerufen am 5. Zwischen Eigensinn und Realitätsflucht. Land am Rand der Mitte Europas.
Januar , abgerufen am 6. August , archiviert vom Original am August ; abgerufen am 5. There is little consensus on the precise beginning of the Age of Enlightenment, though the beginning of the 18th century or the middle of the 17th century are often used as epochs. If taken back to the midth century, the Enlightenment would trace its origins to Descartes ' Discourse on the Method , published in Enlightenment, understood in the widest sense as the advance of thought, has always aimed at liberating human beings from fear and installing them as masters.
Yet the wholly enlightened earth radiates under the sign of disaster triumphant. Extending Horkheimer and Adorno's argument, intellectual historian Jason Josephson-Storm has argued that any idea of the Age of Enlightenment as a clearly defined period that is separate from the earlier Renaissance and later Romanticism or Counter-Enlightenment constitutes a myth. Josephson-Storm points out that there are vastly different and mutually contradictory periodizations of the Enlightenment depending on nation, field of study, and school of thought; that the term and category of "Enlightenment" referring to the scientific revolution was actually applied after the fact; that the Enlightenment did not see an increase in disenchantment or the dominance of the mechanistic worldview ; and that a blur in the early modern ideas of the Humanities and natural sciences makes it hard to circumscribe a Scientific Revolution.
In the s, study of the Enlightenment expanded to include the ways Enlightenment ideas spread to European colonies and how they interacted with indigenous cultures and how the Enlightenment took place in formerly unstudied areas such as Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Poland, Hungary and Russia.
Intellectuals such as Robert Darnton and Jürgen Habermas have focused on the social conditions of the Enlightenment. Habermas described the creation of the "bourgeois public sphere" in 18th-century Europe, containing the new venues and modes of communication allowing for rational exchange. Habermas said that the public sphere was bourgeois, egalitarian, rational and independent from the state, making it the ideal venue for intellectuals to critically examine contemporary politics and society, away from the interference of established authority.
While the public sphere is generally an integral component of the social study of the Enlightenment, other historians have questioned whether the public sphere had these characteristics. In contrast to the intellectual historiographical approach of the Enlightenment, which examines the various currents or discourses of intellectual thought within the European context during the 17th and 18th centuries, the cultural or social approach examines the changes that occurred in European society and culture.
This approach studies the process of changing sociabilities and cultural practices during the Enlightenment. One of the primary elements of the culture of the Enlightenment was the rise of the public sphere , a "realm of communication marked by new arenas of debate, more open and accessible forms of urban public space and sociability, and an explosion of print culture", in the late 17th century and 18th century. The values of this bourgeois public sphere included holding reason to be supreme, considering everything to be open to criticism the public sphere is critical , and the opposition of secrecy of all sorts.
The creation of the public sphere has been associated with two long-term historical trends: The modern nation state, in its consolidation of public power, created by counterpoint a private realm of society independent of the state, which allowed for the public sphere. Capitalism also increased society's autonomy and self-awareness , as well as an increasing need for the exchange of information.
The context for the rise of the public sphere was the economic and social change commonly associated with the Industrial Revolution: Meanwhile, the colonial experience most European states had colonial empires in the 18th century began to expose European society to extremely heterogeneous cultures, leading to the breaking down of "barriers between cultural systems, religious divides, gender differences and geographical areas".
The word "public" implies the highest level of inclusivity — the public sphere by definition should be open to all. However, this sphere was only public to relative degrees.
Enlightenment thinkers frequently contrasted their conception of the "public" with that of the people: Condorcet contrasted "opinion" with populace, Marmontel "the opinion of men of letters" with "the opinion of the multitude" and d'Alembert the "truly enlightened public" with "the blind and noisy multitude".
Because of the focus on reason over superstition, the Enlightenment cultivated the arts. Areas of study such as literature, philosophy, science, and the fine arts increasingly explored subject matter to which the general public, in addition to the previously more segregated professionals and patrons, could relate. As musicians depended more and more on public support, public concerts became increasingly popular and helped supplement performers' and composers' incomes.
The concerts also helped them to reach a wider audience. Handel , for example, epitomized this with his highly public musical activities in London. He gained considerable fame there with performances of his operas and oratorios. The music of Haydn and Mozart , with their Viennese Classical styles, are usually regarded as being the most in line with the Enlightenment ideals. The desire to explore, record and systematize knowledge had a meaningful impact on music publications. Jean-Jacques Rousseau 's Dictionnaire de musique published in Geneva and in Paris was a leading text in the late 18th century.
From the Earliest Ages to the Present Period , which was a historical survey and an attempt to rationalize elements in music systematically over time. For example, Rose Rosengard Subotnik 's Deconstructive Variations subtitled Music and Reason in Western Society compares Mozart's Die Zauberflöte using the Enlightenment and Romantic perspectives and concludes that the work is "an ideal musical representation of the Enlightenment". As the economy and the middle class expanded, there was an increasing number of amateur musicians.
One manifestation of this involved women, who became more involved with music on a social level. Women were already engaged in professional roles as singers and increased their presence in the amateur performers' scene, especially with keyboard music. The majority of the works that were published were for keyboard, voice and keyboard and chamber ensemble.
The increasing study of the fine arts, as well as access to amateur-friendly published works, led to more people becoming interested in reading and discussing music. Music magazines, reviews and critical works which suited amateurs as well as connoisseurs began to surface. The philosophes spent a great deal of energy disseminating their ideas among educated men and women in cosmopolitan cities. They used many venues, some of them quite new. In the midst of all the governments that decide the fate of men; in the bosom of so many states, the majority of them despotic It is the realm of talent and of thought.
The Republic of Letters was the sum of a number of Enlightenment ideals: The salon was the principal social institution of the republic  and "became the civil working spaces of the project of Enlightenment".
In France, the established men of letters gens de lettres had fused with the elites les grands of French society by the midth century. This led to the creation of an oppositional literary sphere, Grub Street , the domain of a "multitude of versifiers and would-be authors".
The writers of Grub Street, the Grub Street Hacks, were left feeling bitter about the relative success of the men of letters  and found an outlet for their literature which was typified by the libelle. Written mostly in the form of pamphlets, the libelles "slandered the court, the Church, the aristocracy, the academies, the salons, everything elevated and respectable, including the monarchy itself".
It was Grub Street literature that was most read by the public during the Enlightenment. The increased consumption of reading materials of all sorts was one of the key features of the "social" Enlightenment. Developments in the Industrial Revolution allowed consumer goods to be produced in greater quantities at lower prices, encouraging the spread of books, pamphlets, newspapers and journals — "media of the transmission of ideas and attitudes". Commercial development likewise increased the demand for information, along with rising populations and increased urbanisation.
Literacy rates are difficult to gauge, but in France the rates doubled over the course of the 18th century. Reading underwent serious changes in the 18th century. In particular, Rolf Engelsing has argued for the existence of a Reading Revolution.
Until , reading was done intensively: After , people began to read "extensively", finding as many books as they could, increasingly reading them alone. The vast majority of the reading public could not afford to own a private library and while most of the state-run "universal libraries" set up in the 17th and 18th centuries were open to the public, they were not the only sources of reading material. Intended for a largely rural and semi-literate audience these books included almanacs, retellings of medieval romances and condensed versions of popular novels, among other things.
Libraries that lent out their material for a small price started to appear and occasionally bookstores would offer a small lending library to their patrons. Coffee houses commonly offered books, journals and sometimes even popular novels to their customers. The Tatler and The Spectator , two influential periodicals sold from to , were closely associated with coffee house culture in London, being both read and produced in various establishments in the city.
It is extremely difficult to determine what people actually read during the Enlightenment. For example, examining the catalogs of private libraries gives an image skewed in favor of the classes wealthy enough to afford libraries and also ignores censored works unlikely to be publicly acknowledged.
For this reason, a study of publishing would be much more fruitful for discerning reading habits. Across continental Europe, but in France especially, booksellers and publishers had to negotiate censorship laws of varying strictness. Indeed, many publishing companies were conveniently located outside France so as to avoid overzealous French censors.
They would smuggle their merchandise across the border, where it would then be transported to clandestine booksellers or small-time peddlers. Readers were more interested in sensationalist stories about criminals and political corruption than they were in political theory itself. The second most popular category, "general works" those books "that did not have a dominant motif and that contained something to offend almost everyone in authority" , demonstrated a high demand for generally low-brow subversive literature.
However, these works never became part of literary canon and are largely forgotten today as a result. A healthy, legal publishing industry existed throughout Europe, although established publishers and book sellers occasionally ran afoul of the law. A genre that greatly rose in importance was that of scientific literature. Natural history in particular became increasingly popular among the upper classes.
Students in Enlightenment universities and academies were taught these subjects to prepare them for careers as diverse as medicine and theology. As shown by Matthew Daniel Eddy, natural history in this context was a very middle class pursuit and operated as a fertile trading zone for the interdisciplinary exchange of diverse scientific ideas. The target audience of natural history was French polite society, evidenced more by the specific discourse of the genre than by the generally high prices of its works.
Naturalists catered to polite society's desire for erudition — many texts had an explicit instructive purpose. However, natural history was often a political affair. As Emma Spary writes, the classifications used by naturalists "slipped between the natural world and the social In this way natural history spread many of the scientific developments of the time, but also provided a new source of legitimacy for the dominant class.
The first scientific and literary journals were established during the Enlightenment. However, it was not until that periodicals began to be more widely produced. French and Latin were the dominant languages of publication, but there was also a steady demand for material in German and Dutch.
There was generally low demand for English publications on the Continent, which was echoed by England's similar lack of desire for French works. Languages commanding less of an international market—such as Danish, Spanish and Portuguese—found journal success more difficult and more often than not a more international language was used instead.
French slowly took over Latin's status as the lingua franca of learned circles. This in turn gave precedence to the publishing industry in Holland, where the vast majority of these French language periodicals were produced. Jonathan Israel called the journals the most influential cultural innovation of European intellectual culture. Being a source of knowledge derived from science and reason, they were an implicit critique of existing notions of universal truth monopolized by monarchies, parliaments and religious authorities.
They also advanced Christian enlightenment that upheld "the legitimacy of God-ordained authority"—the Bible—in which there had to be agreement between the biblical and natural theories. Although the existence of dictionaries and encyclopedias spanned into ancient times, the texts changed from simply defining words in a long running list to far more detailed discussions of those words in 18th-century encyclopedic dictionaries.
As the 18th century progressed, the content of encyclopedias also changed according to readers' tastes. Volumes tended to focus more strongly on secular affairs, particularly science and technology, rather than matters of theology.
Along with secular matters, readers also favoured an alphabetical ordering scheme over cumbersome works arranged along thematic lines. For Porset, the avoidance of thematic and hierarchical systems thus allows free interpretation of the works and becomes an example of egalitarianism. The first technical dictionary was drafted by John Harris and entitled Lexicon Technicum: Harris' book avoided theological and biographical entries and instead it concentrated on science and technology.
Published in , the Lexicon technicum was the first book to be written in English that took a methodical approach to describing mathematics and commercial arithmetic along with the physical sciences and navigation. Other technical dictionaries followed Harris' model, including Ephraim Chambers ' Cyclopaedia , which included five editions and was a substantially larger work than Harris'.
The folio edition of the work even included foldout engravings. The Cyclopaedia emphasized Newtonian theories, Lockean philosophy and contained thorough examinations of technologies, such as engraving , brewing and dyeing. In Germany, practical reference works intended for the uneducated majority became popular in the 18th century. The Marperger Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerkund Handlungs-Lexicon explained terms that usefully described the trades and scientific and commercial education.
Jablonksi Allgemeines Lexicon was better known than the Handlungs-Lexicon and underscored technical subjects rather than scientific theory.
For example, over five columns of text were dedicated to wine while geometry and logic were allocated only twenty-two and seventeen lines, respectively. However, the prime example of reference works that systematized scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment were universal encyclopedias rather than technical dictionaries.
It was the goal of universal encyclopedias to record all human knowledge in a comprehensive reference work. The work, which began publication in , was composed of thirty-five volumes and over 71 separate entries.
A great number of the entries were dedicated to describing the sciences and crafts in detail and provided intellectuals across Europe with a high-quality survey of human knowledge. In d'Alembert's Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot , the work's goal to record the extent of human knowledge in the arts and sciences is outlined:. As a Reasoned Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades, it is to contain the general principles that form the basis of each science and each art, liberal or mechanical, and the most essential facts that make up the body and substance of each.
The massive work was arranged according to a "tree of knowledge". The tree reflected the marked division between the arts and sciences, which was largely a result of the rise of empiricism. Both areas of knowledge were united by philosophy, or the trunk of the tree of knowledge.
The Enlightenment's desacrilization of religion was pronounced in the tree's design, particularly where theology accounted for a peripheral branch, with black magic as a close neighbour. One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization. An increasingly literate population seeking knowledge and education in both the arts and the sciences drove the expansion of print culture and the dissemination of scientific learning.
The new literate population was due to a high rise in the availability of food. This enabled many people to rise out of poverty, and instead of paying more for food, they had money for education. Sir Isaac Newton's celebrated Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica was published in Latin and remained inaccessible to readers without education in the classics until Enlightenment writers began to translate and analyze the text in the vernacular. The first significant work that expressed scientific theory and knowledge expressly for the laity, in the vernacular and with the entertainment of readers in mind, was Bernard de Fontenelle 's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds The book was produced specifically for women with an interest in scientific writing and inspired a variety of similar works.
Charles Leadbetter's Astronomy was advertised as "a Work entirely New" that would include "short and easie [ sic ] Rules and Astronomical Tables". A similar introduction to Newtonianism for women was produced by Henry Pemberton. Extant records of subscribers show that women from a wide range of social standings purchased the book, indicating the growing number of scientifically inclined female readers among the middling class.
Sarah Trimmer wrote a successful natural history textbook for children titled The Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature , which was published for many years after in eleven editions. Most work on the Enlightenment emphasizes the ideals discussed by intellectuals, rather than the actual state of education at the time.
Leading educational theorists like England's John Locke and Switzerland's Jean Jacques Rousseau both emphasized the importance of shaping young minds early. By the late Enlightenment, there was a rising demand for a more universal approach to education, particularly after the American and French Revolutions. The predominant educational psychology from the s onward, especially in northern European countries was associationism, the notion that the mind associates or dissociates ideas through repeated routines.
In addition to being conducive to Enlightenment ideologies of liberty, self-determination and personal responsibility, it offered a practical theory of the mind that allowed teachers to transform longstanding forms of print and manuscript culture into effective graphic tools of learning for the lower and middle orders of society.
Many of the leading universities associated with Enlightenment progressive principles were located in northern Europe, with the most renowned being the universities of Leiden, Göttingen, Halle, Montpellier, Uppsala and Edinburgh. These universities, especially Edinburgh, produced professors whose ideas had a significant impact on Britain's North American colonies and later the American Republic.
Within the natural sciences, Edinburgh's medical school also led the way in chemistry, anatomy and pharmacology. In France, the major exception was the medical university at Montpellier. The history of Academies in France during the Enlightenment begins with the Academy of Science , founded in in Paris. It was closely tied to the French state, acting as an extension of a government seriously lacking in scientists.
It helped promote and organize new disciplines and it trained new scientists. It also contributed to the enhancement of scientists' social status, considering them to be the "most useful of all citizens".
Academies demonstrate the rising interest in science along with its increasing secularization, as evidenced by the small number of clerics who were members 13 percent.
They perceived themselves as "interpreters of the sciences for the people". For example, it was with this in mind that academicians took it upon themselves to disprove the popular pseudo-science of mesmerism. These academic contests were perhaps the most public of any institution during the Enlightenment. However, by roughly this subject matter had radically expanded and diversified, including "royal propaganda, philosophical battles, and critical ruminations on the social and political institutions of the Old Regime".
Topics of public controversy were also discussed such as the theories of Newton and Descartes, the slave trade, women's education and justice in France. More importantly, the contests were open to all and the enforced anonymity of each submission guaranteed that neither gender nor social rank would determine the judging.
Indeed, although the "vast majority" of participants belonged to the wealthier strata of society "the liberal arts, the clergy, the judiciary and the medical profession" , there were some cases of the popular classes submitting essays and even winning.
Of a total of 2, prize competitions offered in France, women won 49—perhaps a small number by modern standards, but very significant in an age in which most women did not have any academic training.
Indeed, the majority of the winning entries were for poetry competitions, a genre commonly stressed in women's education. In England, the Royal Society of London also played a significant role in the public sphere and the spread of Enlightenment ideas.
It was founded by a group of independent scientists and given a royal charter in This is where the Royal Society came into play: Two factors were taken into account: In other words, only civil society were considered for Boyle's public. It was the place in which philosophes got reunited and talked about old, actual or new ideas.
Salons were the place where intellectual and enlightened ideas were built. Coffeehouses were especially important to the spread of knowledge during the Enlightenment because they created a unique environment in which people from many different walks of life gathered and shared ideas. They were frequently criticized by nobles who feared the possibility of an environment in which class and its accompanying titles and privileges were disregarded.
Such an environment was especially intimidating to monarchs who derived much of their power from the disparity between classes of people. If classes were to join together under the influence of Enlightenment thinking, they might recognize the all-encompassing oppression and abuses of their monarchs and because of their size might be able to carry out successful revolts. Monarchs also resented the idea of their subjects convening as one to discuss political matters, especially those concerning foreign affairs—rulers thought political affairs to be their business only, a result of their supposed divine right to rule.
Coffeehouses represent a turning point in history during which people discovered that they could have enjoyable social lives within their communities. Coffeeshops became homes away from home for many who sought, for the first time, to engage in discourse with their neighbors and discuss intriguing and thought-provoking matters, especially those regarding philosophy to politics. Coffeehouses were essential to the Enlightenment, for they were centers of free-thinking and self-discovery.
Although many coffeehouse patrons were scholars, a great deal were not. Coffeehouses attracted a diverse set of people, including not only the educated wealthy but also members of the bourgeoisie and the lower class.
While it may seem positive that patrons, being doctors, lawyers, merchants, etc. One of the most popular critiques of the coffeehouse claimed that it "allowed promiscuous association among people from different rungs of the social ladder, from the artisan to the aristocrat" and was therefore compared to Noah's Ark, receiving all types of animals, clean or unclean. Together, Steele and Addison published The Spectator , a daily publication which aimed, through fictional narrator Mr.
Spectator, both to entertain and to provoke discussion regarding serious philosophical matters. The first English coffeehouse opened in Oxford in Brian Cowan said that Oxford coffeehouses developed into " penny universities ", offering a locus of learning that was less formal than structured institutions. These penny universities occupied a significant position in Oxford academic life, as they were frequented by those consequently referred to as the virtuosi , who conducted their research on some of the resulting premises.
According to Cowan, "the coffeehouse was a place for like-minded scholars to congregate, to read, as well as learn from and to debate with each other, but was emphatically not a university institution, and the discourse there was of a far different order than any university tutorial". These bruits were allegedly a much better source of information than were the actual newspapers available at the time.
The debating societies are an example of the public sphere during the Enlightenment. In the late s, popular debating societies began to move into more "genteel" rooms, a change which helped establish a new standard of sociability. The debating societies were commercial enterprises that responded to this demand, sometimes very successfully.
Some societies welcomed from to 1, spectators a night. The debating societies discussed an extremely wide range of topics. After the second half of the 17th century and during the 18th century, a "general process of rationalization and secularization set in" and confessional disputes were reduced to a secondary status in favor of the "escalating contest between faith and incredulity". In addition to debates on religion, societies discussed issues such as politics and the role of women.
However, it is important to note that the critical subject matter of these debates did not necessarily translate into opposition to the government. In other words, the results of the debate quite frequently upheld the status quo. Once inside, spectators were able to participate in a largely egalitarian form of sociability that helped spread Enlightenment ideas. Historians have long debated the extent to which the secret network of Freemasonry was a main factor in the Enlightenment.
It expanded rapidly during the Age of Enlightenment, reaching practically every country in Europe. It was especially attractive to powerful aristocrats and politicians as well as intellectuals, artists and political activists.
During the Age of Enlightenment, Freemasons comprised an international network of like-minded men, often meeting in secret in ritualistic programs at their lodges.