Saddam fortsatte med at trodse verdenssamfundet, og sanktionerne fortsatte. Marines of Task Force Tripoli. So far it was not possible to establish how many of these troops are dead, captured or have successfully reached other units. As the insurgency grew there was a distinct change in targeting from the coalition forces towards the new Iraqi Security Forces, as hundreds of Iraqi civilians and police were killed over the next few months in a series of massive bombings.
There was a reported trend of decreasing U. Data from the Pentagon and other U. The GAO also stated that there was no discernible trend in sectarian violence.
Entire neighborhoods in Baghdad were ethnically cleansed by Shia and Sunni militias and sectarian violence has broken out in every Iraqi city where there is a mixed population. Instead, according to that view, the reduction of violence was due to newer covert techniques by U. Basra is the ninth province of Iraq's 18 provinces to be returned to local security forces' control since the beginning of the occupation.
More than half of the members of Iraq's parliament rejected the continuing occupation of their country for the first time. It also calls for a timetable for troop withdrawal and a freeze on the size of foreign forces.
In mid, the Coalition began a controversial program to recruit Iraqi Sunnis often former insurgents for the formation of "Guardian" militias. These Guardian militias are intended to support and secure various Sunni neighborhoods against the Islamists. These tensions further increased with an alleged border incursion on 23 August by Iranian troops who attacked several Kurdish villages killing an unknown number of civilians and militants. Coalition forces also began to target alleged Iranian Quds force operatives in Iraq, either arresting or killing suspected members.
The Bush administration and coalition leaders began to publicly state that Iran was supplying weapons, particularly EFP devices, to Iraqi insurgents and militias although to date have failed to provide any proof for these allegations.
Further sanctions on Iranian organizations were also announced by the Bush administration in the autumn of On 21 November , Lieutenant General James Dubik, who is in charge of training Iraqi security forces, praised Iran for its "contribution to the reduction of violence" in Iraq by upholding its pledge to stop the flow of weapons, explosives and training of extremists in Iraq.
Border incursions by PKK militants based in Northern Iraq have continued to harass Turkish forces, with casualties on both sides. In the fall of , the Turkish military stated their right to cross the Iraqi Kurdistan border in "hot pursuit" of PKK militants and began shelling Kurdish areas in Iraq and attacking PKK bases in the Mount Cudi region with aircraft.
The latest series of attacks involved at least 50 aircraft and artillery and Kurdish officials reported one civilian killed and two wounded.
Additionally, weapons that were given to Iraqi security forces by the U. On 17 September , the Iraqi government announced that it was revoking the license of the U. According to the U. They also pointed out that the casualty figure for U. According to the Brookings Institution , Iraqi civilian fatalities numbered in November as against 3, in January , whereas attacks against the coalition numbered somewhere between and per week in the latter half of , as opposed to a peak of nearly 1, in summer The number of Iraqi security forces killed was under per month in the second half of , from a high of to in summer Meanwhile, the proficiency of the Iraqi military increased as it launched a spring offensive against Shia militias, which Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki had previously been criticized for allowing to operate.
This began with a March operation against the Mehdi Army in Basra, which led to fighting in Shia areas up and down the country, especially in the Sadr City district of Baghdad.
By October, the British officer in charge of Basra said that since the operation,the town had become "secure" and had a murder rate comparable to Manchester in England.
Progress in Sunni areas continued after members of the Awakening movement were transferred from U. Despite detaining thousands of individuals, the offensive failed to lead to major long-term security improvements in Mosul.
At the end of the year, the city remained a major flashpoint. In the regional dimension, the ongoing conflict between Turkey and PKK    intensified on 21 February, when Turkey launched a ground attack into the Quandeel Mountains of Northern Iraq.
This was the first substantial ground incursion by Turkish forces since Shortly after the incursion began, both the Iraqi cabinet and the Kurdistan regional government condemned Turkey's actions and called for the immediate withdrawal of Turkish troops from the region.
Odierno , noted that "in military terms, transitions are the most dangerous time" in December At the end of March, the Iraqi Army, with Coalition air support, launched an offensive, dubbed "Charge of the Knights", in Basra to secure the area from militias. This was the first major operation where the Iraqi Army did not have direct combat support from conventional coalition ground troops.
The offensive was opposed by the Mahdi Army , one of the militias, which controlled much of the region. During the fighting Iraqi forces met stiff resistance from militiamen in Basra to the point that the Iraqi military offensive slowed to a crawl, with the high attrition rates finally forcing the Sadrists to the negotiating table. Following talks with Brig. By 12 May , Basra "residents overwhelmingly reported a substantial improvement in their everyday lives" according to The New York Times.
In late April roadside bombings continued to rise from a low in January—from bombings to more than , surpassing the May high. Speaking before the Congress on 8 April , General David Petraeus urged delaying troop withdrawals, saying, "I've repeatedly noted that we haven't turned any corners, we haven't seen any lights at the end of the tunnel," referencing the comments of then President Bush and former Vietnam-era General William Westmoreland.
Iraq became one of the top purchasers of U. The pact was subject to possible negotiations which could have delayed withdrawal and a referendum scheduled for mid in Iraq, which might have required all U. Some Americans have discussed "loopholes"  and some Iraqis have said they believe parts of the pact remain a "mystery". Secretary of Defense Robert Gates predicted that after he expected to see "perhaps several tens of thousands of American troops" as part of a residual force in Iraq.
Several groups of Iraqis protested the passing of the SOFA accord    as prolonging and legitimizing the occupation.
Tens of thousands of Iraqis burned an effigy of George W. Bush in a central Baghdad square where U. He said that Iraqi rule in the country is not complete while the occupiers are present, but that ultimately the Iraqi people would judge the pact in a referendum.
A protester said that despite the approval of the Interim Security pact, the Iraqi people would break it in a referendum next year. On 1 January , the United States handed control of the Green Zone and Saddam Hussein's presidential palace to the Iraqi government in a ceremonial move described by the country's prime minister as a restoration of Iraq's sovereignty.
On 31 January, Iraq held provincial elections. Iraqi voter turnout failed to meet the original expectations which were set and was the lowest on record in Iraq,  but U. Ambassador Ryan Crocker characterized the turnout as "large". A "transitional force" of up to 50, troops tasked with training the Iraqi Security Forces , conducting counterterrorism operations, and providing general support may remain until the end of , the president added.
However, the insurgency in and the rise of ISIS in caused the war to continue . On 9 April, the 6th anniversary of Baghdad's fall to coalition forces, tens of thousands of Iraqis thronged Baghdad to mark the anniversary and demand the immediate departure of coalition forces.
Police said many Sunnis, including prominent leaders such as a founding sheikh from the Sons of Iraq , took part. On 30 April, the United Kingdom formally ended combat operations. On 28 July, Australia withdrew its combat forces as the Australian military presence in Iraq ended, per an agreement with the Iraqi government. The withdrawal of U. On 29 June , U. On 30 November , Iraqi Interior Ministry officials reported that the civilian death toll in Iraq fell to its lowest level in November since the invasion.
On 30 June and 11 December , the Iraqi ministry of oil awarded contracts to international oil companies for some of Iraq's many oil fields. On 17 February , U. On 18 April, U. After the lengthy exchange of fire and bombing of the house, the Iraqi troops stormed inside and found two women still alive, one of whom was al-Masri's wife, and four dead men, identified as al-Masri, Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi , an assistant to al-Masri, and al-Baghdadi's son. A suicide vest was indeed found on al-Masri's corpse, as the Iraqi Army subsequently stated.
Raymond Odierno praised the operation. On 20 June, Iraq's Central Bank was bombed in an attack that left 15 people dead and brought much of downtown Baghdad to a standstill. The attack was claimed to have been carried out by the Islamic State of Iraq.
This attack was followed by another attack on Iraq's Bank of Trade building that killed 26 and wounded 52 people. In late August , insurgents conducted a major attack with at least 12 car bombs simultaneously detonating from Mosul to Basra and killing at least These attacks coincided with the U. From the end of August , the United States attempted to dramatically cut its combat role in Iraq, with the withdrawal of all U.
While all combat brigades left the country, an additional 50, personnel including Advise and Assist Brigades remained in the country to provide support for the Iraqi military. The desire to step back from an active counter-insurgency role did not however mean that the Advise and Assist Brigades and other remaining U.
A standards memo from the Associated Press reiterated "combat in Iraq is not over, and we should not uncritically repeat suggestions that it is, even if they come from senior officials". State Department spokesman P. In his address, he covered the role of the United States' soft power, the effect the war had on the United States economy, and the legacy of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Vice President Joe Biden expressed concerns regarding the ongoing lack of progress in forming a new Iraqi government, saying of the Iraqi people that "they expect a government that reflects the results of the votes they cast".
Ray Odierno stated that the new era "in no way signals the end of our commitment to the people of Iraq". Speaking in Ramadi earlier in the day, Gates said that U. When asked by reporters if the seven-year war was worth doing, Gates commented that "It really requires a historian's perspective in terms of what happens here in the long run". He noted the Iraq War "will always be clouded by how it began" regarding Saddam Hussein's supposed weapons of mass destruction , which were never confirmed to have existed.
Gates continued, "This is one of the reasons that this war remains so controversial at home". On 7 September, two U. The incident is under investigation by Iraqi and U. On 8 September, the U. It was announced that the unit would assume responsibilities in five southern provinces. According to reports from Iraq, hundreds of members of the Sunni Awakening Councils may have switched allegiance back to the Iraqi insurgency or al Qaeda.
In October, WikiLeaks disclosed , classified U. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by the Islamic State in Iraq organization. The Iraqi navy also purchased 12 U. Delivery was completed in These included allowing Iraq to have a civilian nuclear program, permitting the participation of Iraq in international nuclear and chemical weapons treaties, as well as returning control of Iraq's oil and gas revenue to the government and ending the Oil-for-Food Programme.
Muqtada al-Sadr returned to Iraq in the holy city of Najaf to lead the Sadrist movement after being in exile since On 15 January , three U. One of the troops was killed on a military operation in central Iraq, while the other two troops were deliberately shot by one or two Iraqi soldiers during a training exercise. On 6 June, five U.
On 13 June , two U. On 26 June , a U. On 29 June, three U. It was speculated that the militant group responsible for the attack was the same one which attacked JSS Loyalty just over three weeks before. On 7 July, two U. Beyers, 24, and Spc. Newby, 20, were killed in the attack, Staff Sgt. Jazon Rzepa, 30, was seriously injured. In September, Iraq signed a contract to buy 18 Lockheed Martin F warplanes, becoming the 26th nation to operate the F Because of windfall profits from oil, the Iraqi government is planning to double this originally planned 18, to 36 Fs.
Iraq is relying on the U. With the collapse of the discussions about extending the stay of any U. In November , the U. Senate voted down a resolution to formally end the war by bringing its authorization by Congress to an end. On 15 December, an American military ceremony was held in Baghdad putting a formal end to the U.
Marine Embassy Guards and between 4, and 5, private military contractors. He has been accused of involvement in assassinations and fled to the Kurdish part of Iraq. The invasion and occupation led to sectarian violence which caused widespread displacement among Iraqi civilians.
The Iraqi Red Crescent organization estimated the total internal displacement was around 2. Poverty led many Iraqi women to turn to prostitution to support themselves and their families, attracting sex tourists from regional lands. The invasion led to a constitution which supported democracy as long as laws did not violate traditional Islamic principles, and a parliamentary election was held in In addition the invasion preserved the autonomy of the Kurdish region, and stability brought new economic prosperity.
Because the Kurdish region is historically the most democratic area of Iraq, many Iraqi refugees from other territories fled into the Kurdish land. Iraqi insurgency surged in the aftermath of the U.
Some 1, people were killed across Iraq within the first two months after U. Sectarian violence continued in the first half of At least 56 people died in April when a Sunni protest in Hawija was interrupted by a government-supported helicopter raid and a series of violent incidents occurred in May. On 20 May , at least 95 people died in a wave of car bomb attacks that was preceded by a car bombing on 15 May that led to 33 deaths; also, on 18 May, 76 people were killed in the Sunni areas of Baghdad.
Some experts have stated that Iraq could return to the brutal sectarian conflict of On 22 July , at least five hundred convicts, most of whom were senior members of al-Qaida who had received death sentences, broke out of Iraq's Abu Ghraib jail when comrades launched a military-style assault to free them.
The attack began when a suicide bomber drove a car packed with explosives into prison gates. Jeffrey, the United States ambassador in Baghdad when the last American troops exited, said the assault and resulting escape "will provide seasoned leadership and a morale boost to Al Qaeda and its allies in both Iraq and Syria By mid the country was in chaos with a new government yet to be formed following national elections, and the insurgency reaching new heights.
Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki asked his parliament to declare a state of emergency that would give him increased powers, but the lawmakers refused. In the summer of , President Obama announced the return of U. This paved the way for Haidar al-Abadi to take over on 19 August A civil war between ISIS and the central government continued for the next three years, until the government declared victory in December Articles in The Lancet and Al Jazeera have suggested that the number of cases of cancer , birth defects, miscarriages , illnesses and premature births may have increased dramatically after the first and second Iraq wars , due to the presences of depleted uranium and chemicals introduced during American attacks.
See also Casualties of the Iraq War , which has casualty numbers for coalition nations, contractors, non-Iraqi civilians, journalists, media helpers, aid workers, and the wounded. Casualty figures, especially Iraqi ones, are highly disputed. There have been several attempts by the media, coalition governments and others to estimate the Iraqi casualties. The table below summarizes some of these estimates and methods. The Bush Administration's rationale for the Iraq War has faced heavy criticism from an array of popular and official sources both inside and outside the United States, with many U.
Both proponents and opponents of the invasion have also criticized the prosecution of the war effort along a number of other lines. Most significantly, critics have assailed the United States and its allies for not devoting enough troops to the mission, not adequately planning for post-invasion Iraq , and for permitting and perpetrating human rights abuses.
As the war has progressed, critics have also railed against the high human and financial costs. In , the United Kingdom published the Iraq Inquiry , a public inquiry which was broadly critical of the actions of the British government and military in making the case for the war, in tactics and in planning for the aftermath of the war.
After President Barack Obama was inaugurated in , some anti-war groups decided to stop protesting even though the war was still going on. Some of them decided to stop because they felt they should give the new President time to establish his administration, and others stopped because they believed that Obama would end the war.
The upper ranges of these estimates include long-term veterans costs and economic impacts. For example, Harvard's public finance expert Linda J. Bilmes has estimated that the long-term cost of providing disability compensation and medical care to U. An inspector general's report mentioned that "'Severe inefficiencies and poor management' by the Coalition Provisional Authority would leave no guarantee that the money was properly used", said Stuart W.
A cholera outbreak in northern Iraq was thought to be the result of poor water quality. The Foreign Policy Association reported that "Perhaps the most perplexing component of the Iraq refugee crisis To date, the United States has granted around 84, Iraqis refugee status, of the more than two million global Iraqi refugees. By contrast, the United States granted asylum to more than , Vietnamese refugees during the Vietnam War.
Throughout the entire Iraq war, there have been human rights abuses on all sides of the conflict. Directly after the invasion, polling suggested that a slight majority supported the U. Bush consistently referred to the Iraq war as "the central front in the War on Terror ", and argued that if the United States pulled out of Iraq, "terrorists will follow us here".
In particular, a consensus developed among intelligence experts that the Iraq war actually increased terrorism. Counterterrorism expert Rohan Gunaratna frequently referred to the invasion of Iraq as a "fatal mistake". London's International Institute for Strategic Studies concluded in that the occupation of Iraq had become "a potent global recruitment pretext" for Mujahideen and that the invasion "galvanised" al-Qaeda and "perversely inspired insurgent violence" there.
National Intelligence Council concluded in a January report that the war in Iraq had become a breeding ground for a new generation of terrorists; David Low, the national intelligence officer for transnational threats, indicated that the report concluded that the war in Iraq provided terrorists with "a training ground, a recruitment ground, the opportunity for enhancing technical skills There is even, under the best scenario, over time, the likelihood that some of the jihadists who are not killed there will, in a sense, go home, wherever home is, and will therefore disperse to various other countries.
According to studies, most of the suicide bombers in Iraq are foreigners, especially Saudis. As an ally of Iraq, Russia was opposed to the invasion of Iraq.
The foreign ministers of Russia, France and Germany made a joint declaration that they will "not allow" passage of a UN Security Council resolution authorising war against Iraq. Russia gave information to Saddam's government about the Bush administration's plans. The information included troop deployments, equipment, and their locations.
Though the Chinese and Russian governments opposed the Iraq War, both China and Russia have benefited from the Iraq War while suffering none of the losses incurred by the countries that invaded. Two of the biggest Iraqi oil contracts went to China and Russia,  while the war itself allowed China to present itself as an alternative source of investment to the United States.
Although some military intelligence analysts have concluded there is no concrete evidence, U. Major General Rick Lynch has claimed that Iran has provided training, weapons, money, and intelligence to Shiite insurgents in Iraq and that up to Iranian intelligence agents, plus members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard are believed to be active in Iraq at any given time. Many explosive devices, including improvised explosives IEDs and explosively-formed projectiles EFPs , used by insurgents are claimed by Lynch to be Iranian-made or designed.
According to two unnamed U. In a speech on 31 January , Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki stated that Iran was supporting attacks against Coalition forces in Iraq  and some Iraqis suspect that the raid may have been perpetrated by the Quds Force in retaliation for the detention of five Iranian officials by U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the war that started in and ended in For the initial invasion, see invasion of Iraq.
For the entire conflict from to the present, see Iraq conflict —present. For other wars in Iraq, see Iraq War disambiguation. Insurgent attacks of the Iraq War. Iraq and weapons of mass destruction and Iraq disarmament crisis. Preparations for invasion of Iraq and Failed Iraqi peace initiatives.
History of Iraq — Sectarian violence in Iraq —08 and Sectarian violence in Iraq. Iran—United States relations and Karbala provincial headquarters raid. Iraqi governorate elections, Controlled by Iraqi government.
Controlled by Iraqi Kurds. Controlled by Syrian government. Controlled by Syrian rebels. Controlled by Syrian Kurds. Casualties of the Iraq War. Foreign hostages in Iraq and List of bombings during the Iraq War. States participating in the invasion of Iraq. States in support of an invasion. States in opposition to an invasion. States with an uncertain or no official standpoint. Humanitarian crises of the Iraq War and Refugees of Iraq. Human rights in post-invasion Iraq. This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose.
You can help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse. Iraq War insurgent attacks. Suicide bombings in Iraq since and Tactics of the Iraqi insurgency. Public opinion on the Iraq War. Iraq War and U. Global War on Terror. Saudi Arabia and terrorism. Origins of suicide bombers in Iraq — Nationality Saudi Arabia.
Iraq portal Military of the United States portal War portal s portal s portal. A Historiography of Wikipedia Changelogs. The period of the war lasting from to was referred to as Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States military.
Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Retrieved 12 January Bush gambled on surging thousands more troops to the embattled country. Al-Qaeda in Iraq is now a diminished force without territory.
Conflicts in the 21st Century: The End of Iraq: Archived from the original on A Threat to U. Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 26 November Retrieved 23 October The Military Balance The New York Times.
Retrieved 30 March The Washington Post , 17 November These events came to be known as the first Gulf War and resulted in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and the Iraqis setting Kuwaiti oil wells on fire during their retreat.
In early Iraq was accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through slant drilling , although some Iraqi sources indicated Saddam Hussein 's decision to attack Kuwait was made a few months before the actual invasion. Iraq set up a puppet government known as the " Republic of Kuwait " to rule over Kuwait and then annexed it outright, when Saddam Hussein announced a few days later that it was the 19th province of Iraq.
In —, Kuwait began sending significant financial loans to Iraq. Kuwait's large-scale economic assistance to Iraq often triggered hostile Iranian actions against Kuwait. Iran repeatedly targeted Kuwaiti oil tankers in and fired weapons at Kuwaiti security personnel stationed on Bubiyan island in By the time the Iran—Iraq War ended, Iraq was not in a financial position to repay the 14 billion USD it borrowed from Kuwait to finance its war and requested that Kuwait forgive the debt.
However, Kuwait's reluctance to pardon the debt strained the relationship between the two countries. In late , several official meetings were held between the Kuwaiti and Iraqi leaders, but they were unable to break the deadlock between the two. The increasingly tense relations between Iraq and Kuwait were further aggravated when Iraq alleged that Kuwait was slant-drilling across the international border into Iraq's Rumaila field.
The dispute over Rumaila field started in when an Arab League declaration marked the Iraq—Kuwait border 2 miles north of the southernmost tip of the Rumaila field. In , Iraq accused Kuwait of using "advanced drilling techniques" to exploit oil from its share of the Rumaila field.
Several foreign firms working in the Rumaila field also dismissed Iraq's slant-drilling claims as a "smokescreen to disguise Iraq's more ambitious intentions". Many westerners believed that Iraq's invasion of Kuwait was largely motivated by its desire to take control over the latter's vast oil reserves. The Iraqi government justified its invasion by claiming that Kuwait was a natural part of Iraq carved off as a result of British imperialism.
After signing the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of , the United Kingdom split Kuwait from the Ottoman territories into a separate sheikhdom.
The Iraqi government also argued that the Kuwaiti Emir was a highly unpopular figure among the Kuwaiti populace. By overthrowing the Emir, Iraq claimed that it granted Kuwaitis greater economic and political freedom.
For this reason, its borders with the rest of Basra province were never clearly defined or mutually agreed. On 25 July , April Glaspie , the U. The American ambassador declared to her Iraqi interlocutor that Washington, "inspired by the friendship and not by confrontation, does not have an opinion" on the disagreement between Kuwait and Iraq, stating "we have no opinion on the Arab—Arab conflicts".
Glaspie also indicated to Saddam Hussein that the United States did not intend "to start an economic war against Iraq".
These statements may have caused Saddam to believe he had received a diplomatic green light from the United States to invade Kuwait. According to Richard E. Rubenstein , Glaspie was later asked by British journalists why she had said that, her response was "we didn't think he would go that far" meaning invade and annex the whole country. Although no follow-up question was asked, it can be inferred that what the U. On 2 August at 2: The main thrust was conducted by the commandos deployed by helicopters and boats to attack Kuwait City see Battle of Dasman Palace , while the other divisions seized the airports and two airbases.
In support of these units, the Iraqi Army deployed a squadron of Mil Mi helicopter gunships , several units of Mi-8 and Mi transport helicopters, as well as a squadron of Bell helicopters. The foremost mission of the helicopter units was to transport and support Iraqi commandos into Kuwait City, and subsequently to support the advance of ground troops.
Meanwhile, certain targets in the capital of Kuwait City were bombed by Iraqi aircraft. Despite months of Iraqi sabre-rattling , Kuwait did not have its forces on alert and was caught unaware.
The first indication of the Iraqi ground advance was from a radar -equipped aerostat that detected an Iraqi armour column moving south. Of the small Kuwaiti Navy , two missile boats were able to evade capture or destruction. An air battle with the Iraqi helicopter airborne forces was fought over Kuwait City, inflicting heavy losses on the Iraqi elite troops [ citation needed ] , and a few combat sorties were flown against Iraqi ground forces.
While these aircraft were not used in support of the subsequent Gulf War, the "Free Kuwait Air Force" assisted Saudi Arabia in patrolling the southern border with Yemen , which was considered a threat by the Saudi Arabians because of Yemen—Iraq ties.
The Kuwaiti Emiri Guard, supported by local police and Chieftain tanks and a Platoon of Saladin armoured cars managed to repel an airborne assault by Iraqi special forces, but the Palace fell after a landing by Iraqi marines Dasman Palace is located on the coast. The Kuwaiti National Guard , as well as additional Emiri Guards arrived, but the palace remained occupied, and Republican Guard tanks rolled into Kuwait City after several hours of heavy fighting.
His younger half brother , Sheikh Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah , was shot and killed by invading Iraqi forces as he attempted to defend Dasman Palace after which his body was placed in front of a tank and run over, according to an Iraqi soldier who was present and deserted after the assault. Towards the end of the first day of the invasion, only pockets of resistance were left in the country. By 3 August, the last military units were desperately fighting delaying actions at choke points and other defensible positions throughout the country until out of ammunition or overrun by Iraqi forces.
Ali al-Salem Air Base of the Kuwaiti Air Force was the only base still unoccupied on 3 August, and Kuwaiti aircraft flew resupply missions from Saudi Arabia throughout the day in an effort to mount a defense. From then on it was only a matter of time until all units of the Kuwaiti Military were forced to retreat or be overrun. Kuwaitis founded a local armed resistance movement following the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. The Kuwaiti resistance's casualty rate far exceeded that of the coalition military forces and Western hostages.
There are a number of reasons why Kurdistan is fast becoming a tech ecosystem hub. More skilled professionals from other countries have chosen Kurdistan to live and work than any other region in Iraq. This expat community mixed with the above reasons has attracted investment from tech businesses from neighbouring countries including Lebanon, Syria and Jordan over the last 18 months. These companies have chosen to set up in Kurdistan, having clearly noted the ripe business opportunity.
Growth of the Kurdistan tech ecosystem will have a positive impact on the entire country, not just the Kurdistan Region. There is still much work to be done and the government can certainly do more to help the tech sector progress.
Why Kurdistan will power Iraqi tech growth: The final word Growth of the Kurdistan tech ecosystem will have a positive impact on the entire country, not just the Kurdistan Region. Community builder, supporter of tech entrepreneurs.